Zhuang, S., Nunna, B. B., Boscoboinik, J. A., and Lee, E. S.* (2017)
Cover Image, Int. J. Energy Res. Volume 41, Issue 15. December 2017
Article: Zhuang S, Nunna BB, Boscoboinik JA, Lee ES. Nitrogen-doped graphene catalysts: High energy wet ball milling synthesis and characterizations of functional groups and particle size variation with time and speed. Int J Energy Res. 2017;41:2535–2554. DOI: 10.1002/er.3821.
Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) catalyst emerges as one of the promising non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalysts with the advantages of low cost, high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, stability, and selectivity to replace expensive PGM catalysts in electrochemical systems. In this research, nanoscale high energy wet (NHEW) ball milling is first investigated for the synthesis of N-G catalysts to make conventional problems such as sintering or localized overheating issues negligible. The successful synthesis of N-G catalysts with comparable catalytic performance to 10Â wt% Pt/C by using this method has been published. This paper focuses on understanding the effect of grinding speed and grinding time on the particle size and chemical state of N-G catalysts through the physical and chemical characterization. The research result shows that (1) the final particle size, nitrogen doping percentage, and nitrogen bonding composition of synthesized N-G catalysts are predictable and controllable by adjusting the grinding time, the grinding speed, and other relative experimental parameters; (2) the final particle size of N-G catalysts could be estimated from the derived relation between the cracking energy density and the particle size of ground material in the NHEW ball milling process with specified experimental parameters; and (3) the chemical composition of N-G catalysts synthesized by NHEW ball milling is controllable by adjusting the grinding time and grinding speed.